Kamis, 24 Juli 2008

BAGUS RANGIN

Dina mangsa bangsa urang dijajah ku Walanda, méh di unggal wewengkon di Jawa Barat aya anu baruntak. Upamana baé di Majaléngka jeung sabudeureunana. Di dinya, dina abad ka-19, aya gerakan baruntak ka Pamaréntah Hindia Walanda anu kaasup rongkah. Pikeun nyanghareupanana, Walanda téh nepi ka kudu ngetrukkeun kakuatanana.

Éta babarontakan téh digerakkeun ku Bagus Rangin. Malah saterusna mah, ambahanana téh henteu ngan di Majaléngka baé. Geus puguh di sawewengkon Cirebon mah, da harita Majaléngka téh kabawah kénéh ka Kasultanan Cirebon. Ieu mah nepi ka Karawang jeung Subang sagala.

Bagus Rangin téh pituin urang Majaléngka. Asalna ti Kampung Demak, Blandong, Rajagaluh, di tutugan beulah kalér Gunung Ciremay. Anjeunna téh putra Sentayem alias Buyut Téyom, ajengan anu kaceluk luhur élmuna sarta loba santrina. Anu matak pantes upama dipikolot ku masarakat di dinya téh.

Salian ti guguru ngaji ka nu jadi bapa, Bagus Rangin ogé guguru ka Rama Banten alias Ama Banten, ulama badag ahli tarékat. Bagus Rangin kaasup santri anu cerdas jeung soléh, sarta katotol gedé wawanén dina ngabéla bebeneran. Bakatna pikeun jadi pamingpin geus katingali ti keur budakna kénéh.

Anu matak henteu matak kagét, sanggeus sawawa Bagus Rangin kapapancénan mingpin Kebagusan Jatitujuh ku Sultan Cirebon. Pangkatna sénapati. Engkéna, Jatitujuh téh jadi puseur perlawanan Bagus Rangin ngalawan pamaréntah Hindia Walanda, anu keur ngajajah urang.

Upama dijujut mah, bisa disebutkeun yén perjoangan Bagus Rangin téh, neruskeun perjoangan Pangéran Suriawijaya. Mémang, harita téh rahayat Cirebon keur marudah. Rahayat Cirebon henteu sugema ku tindakan pamaréntah Hindia Walanda, anu loba ngarugikeun rahayat Cirebon.

Pangéran Suriawijaya téh Raja Kanoman. Hartina anu baris jadi Sultan Kanoman, upama Sultan wapat. Tapi, basa Sultan wapat, Walanda téh kalah ka ngangkat Pangéran Surantaka, anu henteu dipikaresep ku rahayat. Rahayat henteu sugemaeun. Da ari kahayang rahayat mah anu diangkat jadi sultan téh Pangéran Suriawijaya.

Katambah deuih kahirupan rahayat di padésaan keur kacida weritna, sabab diperes ku bangsa Cina. Harita loba désa anu diséwa-séwakeun ku pamaréntah Hindia Walanda ka bangsa Cina. Pikeun malikkeun duit séwana téa, rahayat ditibanan ku rupa-rupa pajeg. Aya pajeg tanah, pajeg jambatan, pajeg sirah, jeung sajabana.

Pangéran Suriawijaya, nyaéta Raja Kanoman téa, diusir ti Karaton Kanoman. Ari sababna, dianggap henteu ngabogaan hak pikeun nyicingan Karaton Kanoman. Pangéran Suriawijaya kudu kaluar ti Karaton Kanoman. Atuh puguh wé kateusugema rahayat téh beuki nambahan.

Ahirna rahayat téh nanduk ka pamaréntah Hindia Walanda. Rahayat Cirebon ngangkat Raja Kanoman jadi pamingpin pikeun ngalawan pamaréntah Hindia Walan¬da katut usung-ésangna. Timbul wé uru-ara di ditu, di dieu. Kaayaan di Cirebon jadi harénghéng.

Pamaréntah Hindia Walanda ngarasa kariripuhan nyanghareupan éta kaayaan téh. Pikeun ngungkulanana, taya deui carana iwal ti kudu nangkep pamingpinna. Nyaéta Raja Kanoman. Ceuk pamikir pamaréntah Hindia Walanda, lamun pamingpinna geus beunang mah, rahayat anu baruntak téh kari néwakan baé.

Carana mah biasa baé ku réka-perdaya. Raja Kanoman diajak babadamian ku Walanda di Batawi. Maksudna mah cenah pikeun ngabadamikeun katusugema rahayat Cirebon. Kaasup anu aya patalina jeung kalungguhan Sultan Cirebon, anu harita dicangking ku Pangéran Surantaka téa.

Raja Kanoman mangkatna ka Batawi téh ngan dianteur ku sababaraha urang kapetenganana baé. Anjeunna percaya yén pamaréntah Hindia Walanda moal jalir jangji. Tapi ari buktina mah henteu kitu. Barang geus tepi ka Batawi, Raja Kanoman ditangkep, terus dibuang ka Ambon.

Barang éta béja nepi ka rahayat Cirebon, puguh wé rahayat Cirebon téh beuki ambek. Perjoanganana beuki dihangkeutkeun. Kaayaan di Cirebon anu geus tiis téh, haneut deui. Uru-ara beuki meuweuh ti nu enggeus-enggeus. Loba imah anu diduruk, utamana mah imah-imah jalma anu dianggap biluk ka pamaréntah Hindia Walanda.

Harita, rahayat Palimanan nu perenahna antara Jatitujuh jeung Majaléngka, mimiti baruntak ngalawan paragegedén di daérahna. Anu jadi sababna, wewengkon anu dicicinganana diséwakeun ku bupati ka bangsa Cina. Sakumaha biasa, bangsa Cina meres rahayat ku rupa-rupa pajeg.

Rahayat Palimanan minangsaraya jeung ménta bongbolongan ka Bagus Rangin. Ari sababna, Bagus Rangin téh geus dianggap pamingpin maranéhna. Bagus Rangin nyaluyuan kana tujuan gerakan rahayat Palimanan, anu hayang bébas tina panindes bangsa deungeun.

Ceuk Bagus Rangin, anu wajib pangheulana dipaténi téh Bupati jeung Wakil Residén Walanda. Sabab dina seuhseuhanana mah, maranéhna anu ngalantarankeun rahayat sangsara balangsak téh. Apan manéhna anu nyéwa-nyéwakeun désa ka bangsa Cina téh. Leuwihna ti éta, maranéhna deuih anu ngabéking bangsa Cina pikeun ngajalankeun usahana bari meres rahayat.

Rahayat Palimanan karumpul di imah Bagus Rangin di Bantarjati. Datang kana waktuna, rahayat téh ngaleut ngeungkeuy ngarurug Kota Palimanan, dipingpin ku Bagus Serit, adina Bagus Rangin. Palimanan dikepung ku rahayat, pendopo kabupatén diburak-barik.

Ti dinya rahayat ngajorag Wakil Residén Walanda di imahna. Teu bisa mangga pulia, Wakil Residén dipaténi. Kitu deui imah-imah pangagung anu dianggap biluk ka Walanda, dikepung wakul buaya mangap. Henteu saeutik pangagung anu ditelasan harita kénéh. Ari anu salamet, kalabur ti Palimanan, ngalolos ka Cirebon.

Malah bangsa urang ogé, anu dianggap mata-mata Walanda atawa raket jeung kaom kolonial mah loba nu dipaéhan. Geus puguh ari imah sakur urang Cina mah, loba anu kari urutna. Diduruk. Kitu deui nu nyicinganana, loba nu tinggal ngaran. Palimanan burak-barik. Seuneu ngagugudag ngahuru imah di ditu-di dieu.

Sanggeus ngarurug Palimanan, rahayat balik deui ka salemburna-saIemburna. Sawaréh aya anu terus ngagabung jeung pasukan Bagus Rangin. Beuki lila, beuki loba baé anu ngagabung ka Bagus Rangin téh. Kaasup urut anak buah Raja Kanoman anu dibuang ka Ambon téa.

Pasukan Bagus Rangin, datang ti mana ti mendi. Aya nu ti Subang, Karawang, Sumedang, Indramayu, Majaléngka, Cirebon, jeung Kuningan. Cicirén yén gerakan Bagus Rangin téh lega ambahanana. Anu matak kitu téh lantaran gerakan Bagus Rangin luyu jeung kereteg haté umumna rahayat anu keur katideresa.

Mémang, perjoangan Bagus Rangin meunang sokongan ti rahayat di ditu, di dieu. Anu henteu milu jadi anggota pasukan, ngarojong ku rupa-rupa cara. Aya anu nyokong ku tanaga, senjata, atawa bekel anu mangrupa duit jeung kadaharan. Anu méré sokongan moril ogé henteu kurang-kurang deuih.

Malah aya sawatara gegedén ti éta daérah anu ngarojong kana perjoangan Bagus Rangin. Utamana mah nyadiakeun senjata-senjata kayaning bedil, mariem, jeung sajabana. Ku lantaran kitu, munasabah wé upama pasukan Bagus Rangin téh ngajanggélék jadi pasukan anu tohaga.

Pamaréntah Hindia Walanda boga anggapan gerakan Bagus Rangin téh baris ngabahayakeun kana kakawasaanana. Pamaréntah Hindia Walanda di Batawi nugaskeun Nicolaes Engelhard mingpin pasukan Hindia Walanda pikeun num¬pes perjoangan Bagus Rangin.

Éta pasukan Walanda téh dibantuan ku pasukan ti Bangkalan Madura, nu dipingpin ku Mangkudiningrat. Salian ti eta, sultan jeung bupati nu daérahna aya di sabudeureun tempat Bagus Rangin bajoang, diparéntah kudu ugirimkeun pasukan, mantuan pasukan Walanda.

Bupati anu ngirimkeun pasukanana pikeun man¬tuan Walanda téh nyaéta Bupati Sumedang, Subang, Karawang, jeung Cirebon. Éta pasukan téh kabéh ngambreg ngarurug pasukan Bagus Rangin di puseurna, nyaéta di wewengkon Bantarjati, Jatitujuh. Der wé atuh perang rongkah.

Akibat tina peperangan anu lumangsung mangbulan-¬bulan, loba korban jiwa ti dua pihakanana. Lolobana anu korban téh bangsa urang-bangsa urang kénéh. Ari sababna, anu kudu disanghareupan ku Bagus Rangin téh pasukan anu dibawa ku parabupati pikeun mantuan Walanda. Ari bangsa Walandana mah ngan sababaraha urang baé. Nyaéta anu jadi pamingpinna.

Ku lantaran éléh loba jeung éléh tohaga senjatana, lila-lila mah pasukan Bagus Rangin téh kadéséh. Pasukan Bagus Rangin bisa ngalolos tina kepungan pasukan Walanda jeung parabupati anu biluk ka Walanda. Terus nyarumput, sarta pikeun sawatara waktu mah ngeureunan gerakanana.

Paméntah Hindia Walanda nyaho, yén gerakan Bagus Rangin téh tacan bener-bener bisa diungkulan. Ibarat seuneu dina durukan huut, anu sawaktu-waktu bisa ngagedur deui. Anu matak satékah-polah ngusahakeun, sangkan gerakan Bagus Rangin téh bener-bener pareum.

Walanda ogé apaleun kana bibit-buit baruntakna Bagus Rangin téh. Pikeun mareumkeunana, teu cukup ku dilawan ku senjata baé. Nya teu kungsi lila ti harita, Pamaréntah Hindia Walanda ngayakeun perjangjian jeung Sultan Sepuh katut Sultan Anom, dua Sultan Cirebon.

Eusina éta perjangjian téh, di antarana, Raja Kanoman anu dibuang ka Ambon, dipulangkeun deui ka Cirebon sarta dijungjung lungguh jadi sultan. Salian ti éta, urang Cina teu meunang cicing di désa-désa. Sakabéh pajég anu jadi kabeubeurat rahayat dileungitkeun, sarta sultan teu meunang meres ka rahayatna.

Tapi éta perjangjian téh henteu bisa mareumkeun perjoangan rahayat Jatitujuh jeung sabudeureunana. Komo sanggeus Gupernur Jéndral Wiese diganti ku Daendels mah. Daendels ngarecah Kasultanan Cirebon. Malah saterusna mah daérah Cirebon téh dijieun milik Pamaréntah Walanda. Sultan dijieun pagawé negri anu digajih ku pamaréntah.

Raja Kanoman, anu geus jadi Sultan Cirebon, teu panuju kana éta aturan. Tanpa tedeng aling-aling nembrakkeun kateupanujuna ka pamaréntah Hindia Walanda. Ku lantaran dianggap ngalawan pamaréntah, Raja Kanoman dipocot tina kalungguhanana, diganti ku nu séjén, anu nurut kana kahayang Walanda.

Tindakan Daendels kitu téh, ngalantarankeun rahayat Cirebon marudah deui. Raja Kanoman kacida dipikacintana ku rahayat Cirebon. Raja Kanoman dianggap pamingpin anu gedé wawanén pikeun merjoangkeun nasibna. Akibatna, nya ngagedurkeun deui sumanget perjoangan rahayat di sawatara daérah, anu tadina rék pareum.

Bagus Rangin ogé henteu tinggaleun. Terus baé mepek balad deui. Henteu lila, jeung henteu hésé deuih. Dina waktu anu sakeudeung ogé geus kumpul puluhan rébu anak buahna. Urut anak buahna tiheula, ditambah ku anak buah alanyar anu teu resepeun kana tindakan pamaréntah Hindia Walanda.

Ayeuna mah tujuan gerakan Bagus Rangin téh teuwih jembar deui. Lain baé pikeun merangan kateuadilan kaom penjajah jeung anték-antékna, tapi pikeun ngadegkeun nagara anyar. Nagara anu mandiri, anu henteu gumantung ka Walanda. Karajaanana rék dingarananan Nagara Panca Tengah. Ari piseur dayeuhna di Bantarjati. Rajana, Bagus Rangin.

Mireungeuh galagat kitu, Walanda ogé henteu cicingeun. Terus baé ngeprik pasukanana. Boh pasukan Walanda, boh pasukan parabupati anu biluk ka Walanda. Pasukan Bagus Rangin dikepung ku éta pasukan gabungan Walanda jeung anték-antékna téa.

Ayeuna mah balad Walanda téh jumlahna leuwih loba batan perang anu munggaran. Sababna, salian ti parabupati ti wewengkon anu deukeut ka Jatitujuh, ditambahan ku pasukan Mangkunegara ti Solo, pasukan-pasukan ti Kabupatén Cianjur, Bogor, jeung Limbangan.

Gubernur Hindia Walanda nunjuk Bupati Sumedang, Surialaga, anu katelah Pangéran Kornél, pikeun ngaluluguan numpes Bagus Rangin. Ari Bagus Rangin dibantuan ku kapetenganana saperti Bagus Serit, Buyut Merat jeung Buyut Déisa. Nadah pangrurug balad Walanda di Bantarjati.

Der perang rongkah. Ku lantaran éléh loba jeung éléh tohaga senjatana, pasukan Bagus Rangin kadéséh. Sawaréh beunang ditangkep, sawaréh deui bisa lolos. Bagus Rangin terus ngalolos, nyumput di hiji tempat, di daérah Pangayonan ayeuna. Di dieu mepek balad deui. Tapi pihak Walanda terus ngadéséh pasukan Bagus Rangin, nepi ka Kampung Sindang.

Operasi militer pasukan Pamaréntah Kolonial diterus¬keun ka désa-désa anu dijieun penyumputan ku balad Bagus Rangin. Anu kapanggih ditangkepan sarta dibanda. Teu bisa hojah, lantaran pasukan Walanda jumlahna leuwih loba. Ahirna, Bagus Rangin ogé katangkep di Panongan, tanggal 27 Juni 1812.

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